READ THIS FIRST
This manual contains important information concerning your new PowerPal low head
micro-hydroelectric generator. It covers Models MHG-200LH, MHG-500LH and MHG-
1000LH. You should read this manual before installing PowerPal or allow a trained
technician from your local PowerPal Service Center to install it for you.
Your PowerPal generator is designed to be simple to operate and easy to maintain. If used
in accordance with these instructions your PowerPal will give you many years of service.
PowerPal is also designed with safety in mind, but any electric device can be dangerous if
not used correctly. At several points in this manual, instructions requiring special
attention that must be followed are shown as:
Warning symbol - beware of hazards or unsafe practices that may
cause injury or death.
Caution symbol – beware of hazards or unsafe practices that may damage the
While electricity improves your life, it can also be dangerous if simple
precautions are not followed:
• Never allow electrical contacts to become wet. Beware of electrocution.
• Never attempt to cut electrical wires or open appliances for repair if the generator is
working. Unplug the main cable first.
• Inform children of the dangers of electrocution. Never allow them to play with
• Keep fingers away from the moving propeller. If partly blocked with debris, remove
the generator from the canal before cleaning.
• If you have any questions about safety, please ask your PowerPal Service Center.
• Product should be earth bonded (grounded).
Your PowerPal generator is designed for simple operation and low maintenance.
However, the following operating cautions must be followed to ensure a long life for
•_Under conditions of higher water flow rates than given for each model in this manual,
PowerPal is able to generate higher power outputs than rated. This is a bonus, but only up
to a limit. If maximum power consumption listed in this manual is exceeded then the
copper coils in PowerPal may be irrepairably damaged and require total rewiring. See the
section on ‘Technical Specifications’.
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PowerPal MHG units are designed to supply mainly resistive loads. For other types of loads,
especially reactive loads (battery chargers, low voltage lighting transformers or similar), a cooling kit
for the generator may be required.
Technical background: Reactive loads need reactive power as a surplus to the effective power. This
surplus of reactive power can make the stator of the generator much warmer than acceptable. The
temperature can rise above the curie-point of the rotor magnets and make them lose strength. When the
windings of the stator become warmer than 120°C, the insulation will fail and short circuits can occur
within the windings.
• Do not forget to grease the bearing at the recommended times. Failure to do this will result
in excessive wear on the bearings and shorten their life. Always ensure that the Electronic
Load Controller is set at approximately 110 or 220V, depending on your country. Otherwise,
the life of lights and appliances may be reduced.
•Low frequencies will result if the generator rotor is rotating slower than usual. Low
frequencies may prevent proper functioning of appliances such as televisions and will harm
electric motors. PowerPal is designed to stop working if the rotor speed becomes too low, as
the drag on the rotor becomes too great to sustain its rotation. This in-built mechanism is there
to avoid problems associated with low frequencies. High frequencies will occur if the rotor is
rotating faster than usual. This is due to either a high water flow rate or the use of a small
load. It can be corrected by adjusting the flow gate, or by turning on another appliance to
increase the load. High frequencies do not normally damage electric motors or affect
television picture quality. Light bulbs are not affected by frequency but are affected by
Inside your PowerPal box you will find:
• 1 x generator-turbine assembly
• 1 x electronic load controller
• 1 x spare lower bearing
• 1 x Guarantee Card
• 1 x this instruction manual.
Please advise immediately if any parts are missing. Complete your Guarantee Card and have
it signed by your PowerPal dealer.
The PowerPal system consists of two major components – a hydroelectric generator and an
electronic load controller. Other components are necessary and these can be manufactured
locally. The water intake canal can be made from tin plate, wood, fiberglass or concrete. The
water outlet pipe is usually made from tinplate. Your PowerPal dealer can advise you about
Therefore, other parts which are not included in the box but which are required to make
PowerPal work are:
• 1 x water intake canal
• 1 x water outlet pipe
• electrical wire from generator to house. See the section on ‘Technical Specifications’ for the
correct size wire.
• household wiring.
These are available from your dealer or local electrical store.
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This diagram shows how the non-electrical components fit together. Further reading of
this manual will provide the necessary explanations. The components are:
A. Alternator / generator
C. Water intake canal
D. Water outlet pipe
E. Waterfall, dam wall, or cutting
F. Stream bed.
The various measurements show how to properly construct and set up your system. The
lower diagram (Canal – Plan View) shows the precise internal measurements in order to
construct the water intake canal.
SELECTING A SITE
PowerPal is designed for use in a wide range of locations. The most critical factor is
sufficient water flow. Water flow is the amount of water that passes through the turbine at
any instant, measured in liters per second (l/sec). The second important factor is head (see
below). The following table shows the minimum flow rate and head to achieve the quoted
power output for each model:
MGH-200LH MHG500LH MHG-1000LH
Flow (l/sec) 35 70 130
Head (m) 1.5 1.5 1.5
Flow can be calculated approximately by knowing the water speed. This speed,
multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the intake canal will give you an idea of the flow
rate. Minimum water flow speeds for each model are:
MHG-200LH: 0.54 m/sec.
MHG-500LH: 0.50 m/sec.
MHG-1000LH: 0.41 m/sec.
As a rule, say half a meter per second, or 5 meters in 10 seconds. Drop a leaf upstream
and read the time it takes to travel the measured distance. Note that this method is only a
guide and you will need a sufficient volume of water flowing at this rate to make the
larger models work.
The head is the height from the water surface flowing into the turbine down to the water
surface in the stream below. It is shown in the System Diagram.
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This head should be 1.5 meters for all PowerPal models. If it is smaller then the power
output will be reduced. If it is larger then your power output will be increased. While
increased power output appears desirable, if the head is too large then the rotor will turn
too fast and reduce the life of the bearings. Try to keep the head in the range of 1.4 meters
to 1.6 meters.
Do not attempt to exceed the recommended head height.
There are three basic situations that are suitable for installing PowerPal. They are:
This is the simplest method. If your house is near a stream with a small waterfall around
1.5 meters high then you can use this as a platform. Minor modifications to channel the
flow may be required.
Although this is the simplest method it is also the most
affected by changes in stream flow. Rainstorms or dry
periods may make site modifications necessary.
If the stream is flat you may need to build a dam. It can be constructed from clay
and river boulders, clay and bamboo (or other wood) or even concrete. The dam
wall should be 1.75 meters high to allow for the head. If there is a waterfall less
than 1.5 meters high it may be easy to use this as your dam site to keep the dam
small. If, after constructing the dam the water flow rate is too high then a separate
diversion channel will need to be cut into the dam wall to reduce the flow to the
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Dams have both advantages and dis-advantages.
If used in a village setting they can provide
additional uses as a fish pond and washing area.
The dam wall may support a row of PowerPal
generators so that several families can have
access to electricity. If the village works
together to build the dam the time and
construction costs are lower. Dams are less
likely to be effected by flooding if diversion
channels are adequate, so PowerPal can be used
effectively during the rainy season.
The flow rate is also much more stable than a waterfall set up. Disadvantages are the
flooding of an area to make the lake, a land area that might be used otherwise. The more
incised the stream, the smaller the lake.
3. Side Channel
This is an alternative to a dam and has the advantage of being simpler to construct while
providing a good degree of stream flow control. It is suitable for incised streams with soil
banks. Dig a trench along the bank parallel to the stream, starting at the upstream end
where water can enter. The trench should follow the contour, i.e. be almost horizontal.
Make the trench long enough so that when you have finished it is around 1.5 meters
above the water surface in the stream below. Excavate this area so that the water can
enter the trench, flow along it and exit back into the stream below. Some modifications
may be required to achieve the required flow rate. Try inclining the trench floor in a
downstream direction, or lining the trench with smooth material such as a plastic
tarpaulin to reduce friction.
Simpler than a dam, it is most suitable for small villages
or isolated houses. It also avoids the worst of flooding as
most of the stream flow will follow the main stream
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After locating a suitable site and completing the earthworks (if any), your PowerPal is
ready for installation. To do this:
1. Connect the water intake canal (A) to the water outlet pipe (B). Insert the rubber
seal (C) at the connection point. Bolt the canal and pipe together. Note that the
connections should be airtight or performance will be significantly reduced.
canal and pipe connection should be airtight.
2. Place the canal-pipe assembly in the stream and support the pipe end so that the
pipe is not touching the stream bed. The lower end of the pipe must be at least 20 cm
above the stream bed as well as at least 20 cm below the water surface (see the
System Diagram). The water level in the canal should be at least 20cm and the
recommended flow rate should be available. The base of the canal must be level, or
horizontal. When installed correctly, a vortex should be observed over the hole that
enters the pipe.
3. If provided, insert the debris screen into the upstream end of the canal, but not the
4. Place the turbine end of PowerPal into the hole in the canal (shown below). This
should be a good fit so that PowerPal is vertical and does not move from side to side.
You will notice from the sound and gentle vibrations that PowerPal begins working
immediately. If you do not notice this then there is a problem with your site. Check
again that you have followed the initial procedures correctly. The lower bearing is
lubricated by water so water must be allowed to enter the lower hole drilled in the
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Keep fingers away from the moving propeller.
5. If the rate of water flow entering the canal is too high you will need to insert the
flow gate to the required position to reduce this rate. One way to determine if the flow
rate is too high is if the water level in the canal is too high. The water level should not
be so high that it overflows the canal sides. Another indicator is the presence of
‘standing waves’, or stationary waves on the water surface in the canal. The water
surface should be reasonably smooth, without stationary waves. If, after inserting the
flow gate there is a high level of water turbulence you will have to reduce this. The
easiest way is to modify the stream flow upstream of the canal. Use boulders or sticks
to achieve the desired flow.
6. To avoid electrical shock, divert the water flow or remove PowerPal from the canal
before proceeding to the following electrical connection.
7. Earth-bond (ground) PowerPal. Do this by attaching one end of a suitable length of
0.75 sq.mm/A wire to PowerPal and the other end to a metal object or metal stake in
the ground nearby PowerPal. Although the risk of electric shock is already low, this
earth-bonding is still best practice.
8. Run the required length of two-strand, jacketed electrical cable from PowerPal to
your house etc. Use 3.75 Ampere wire (0.75 sq. mm / Amp) for both MHG-200 and
MHG-500 models. This is thicker than is required but thinner wires are more fragile.
For the MHG-1000 model use 5 Ampere wire (1.0 sq. mm / Amp). Attach the
electrical cable to the red and black connecting points on the PowerPal generator.
Do not allow electrical contacts to become wet. Use dry hands. Beware of
9. Install the electronic load controller (ELC) in a dry place inside the house (or next
to the generator) and connect the ELC’s two red wires to the end of the electrical
cable to the generator.
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220V AC or 110V AC Appliances
(air or water heater)
10. For both MHG-200 and MHG-500 models, place the dummy load water heater (A
& B) attached to the white cable into a water tank of minimum volume 50 litres. The
tank should be made of non-conductive material and the dummy load should be fully
immersed. For the MHG-1000 model an air heater is supplied instead (C). The ELC is
always positioned between the generator and any circuit breaker. Check all the
11. Observe the meter to check the operational state of the ELC - is the voltage at
220V or 110V (depending on your country) when the water is let into the turbine? If
the voltage still increases, then stop and check the connections, and the voltmeter.
Adjust the potentiometer on the circuit board (B) slowly until the voltmeter reads
220V or 110V.
Adjust voltage here
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About the electronic load controller
The water turbine captures the water’s energy and converts it into electricity. The
generator’s output voltage is dependent on the load consumption. When there is no power
being consumed, the output voltage can reach 300V (or 150V)-. This output voltage will
decrease with any increase in power consumption. The electronic load controller is used to
eliminate this excess output voltage so that it is safe to use household appliances.
12. You can now plug lights and appliances directly into the ELC ready for use, with
or without additional house wiring or a circuit breaker. The voltage needs only to be
checked and adjusted if the water flow rate changes. Heavy rain may increase the
flow rate, or a prolonged dry period may gradually reduce it. Check the voltmeter
from time to time and adjust the ELC if necessary.
Avoid plugging appliances directly into PowerPal without using the load
controller. Incorrect voltage may result, which can damage your appliance.
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
General care for your PowerPal will enhance its life. Following the instructions in this
manual is important.
If flooding causes the inside of the generator assembly to become wet, remove the cap
and leave PowerPal in the sun to dry. No permanent damage will result, but check the
upper bearing to see if it has collected water. If so, turn PowerPal upside down to drain
and dry the internal shaft assembly. Do not try to dry it near a fire as the rotor is bonded
with epoxy that could be damaged by excessive heat. Before using again, make sure that
the power socket is also dry. Condensation inside the generator is normal in tropical areas
and will not effect the performance of PowerPal.
There is only one task that must be completed at regular intervals. This is greasing of the
upper bearing assembly.
Greasing the Bearing
PowerPal has three bearings, two at the top of the shaft below the generator and one at
the bottom of the shaft above the turbine. The upper bearing assembly consists of two
steel ball bearing units placed 5cm apart*. One is sealed and requires no greasing while
the other has been greased in the factory ready for use and requires re-greasing through
the grease nipple every 3 months of continuous use. Two cubic centimeters of grease is
enough. The bottom bearing is made of polyamide composite material and is lubricated
by water. No greasing is required.
* Note – this applies to models MHG-200LH & MHG-500LH. If you have purchased model
MHG1000-LH you may find one of the upper bearings located above the generator and one below
the generator. The bearing below the generator requires greasing (near the grease nipple).
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Failure to grease the bearing on time will
shorten its life and require its replacement. The
increased friction will also reduce power
output. Always dry PowerPal before greasing.
If any problems are encountered, check this section before contacting your Service
1. Head and flow conditions appear to be OK, but PowerPal will not work.
It is likely that the system has been installed incorrectly. Check this. If still not working,
remove the cap from the generator and use your fingers to quickly turn the nut on top of
the rotor. If the rotor begins to spin freely then PowerPal is working.
2. PowerPal has provided electricity for a while and suddenly the electricity stops.
If this instruction manual is not followed and power consumption is too high, or if there is
a short circuit in an appliance the overcurrent protection relay in the electronic load
controller will trip. Remove the excess load and press the overcurrent protection relay
button on the ELC to reset.
3. Testing in the stream showed that PowerPal was capable of producing the rated
output power (200W, 500W or 1000W, depending on model). However, after running
the electrical cable to the house this output power was found to be less.
Due to resistance from the cable, long cable runs will result in a small loss of output
power. Power loss over a 100m cable run is approximately 10W. If the loss is greater
than this it means that the wrong diameter cable was used.
4. Power output has been falling recently.
Falling output suggests that the turbine is rotating more slowly than usual. Check that the
canal and propeller are free of leaves and other debris.
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5. Frequency varies too much to safely use an appliance that is rated for use at a
If an exact frequency is required for frequency-sensitive appliances it will be necessary to
attach a battery system.
6. An appliance is supposed to be grounded (earthe.d)
PowerPal is not grounded by its position in the stream. If grounding is required for
certain appliances it will be necessary to ground them separately. The usual method is to
run a wire from the earth pin to a metal stake in the ground outside.
TECHNICAL SP ECI FICATIONS
1 Rated power output 200W 500W 1000W
2 Maximumallowable load 250W 650W 1200W
3 Intended voltage 110 / 220V~ 110 / 220V~ 110 / 220V~
4 Frequency at rated powero utput 50-60 Hz 50-60 Hz 50-60 Hz
5 Frequency at runaway speed 75 Hz 75 Hz 60Hz
6 Rotor runaway speed 1500rpm 1500rpm 1200rpm
7 Weight 16kg 32kg 75kg
8 Height 68cm 78cm 92cm
9 Diameter 20cm 30cm 42.5cm
10 Generator Single phase permanent magnet alternator
11 Rotor characteristics NdFeB 3-pair pole permanent magnet
12 Stator wire size 0.5mm 0.7mm 1.0mm
13 Load controller fuse 1.0A 2.5A 5.0A
14 Upper Bearings size – greased
Upper bearing size - sealed
2 x 6203 2 x 6204 1206
15 Recommended cable 0.50sq.mm/A 0.75 sq.mm/A 1.50 sq.mm/A
16 Operating temperature 5 to 50 ° C 5 to 50 ° C 5 to 50 ° C
17 Operating humidity 0 to 90% 0 to 90% 0 to 90%
1,2. Rated power output is the manufacturer’s specified output for the given head and
flow conditions. A higher output isp ossible if the head is greatero r the flow is faster than
recommended. If the maximum allowable load is exceeded then permanent damage to the
stator may occur.
3. Is approximately 110 / 220V when the ELC is used.
5,6. Runaway speed is the speed of the rotor if no load is applied. This speed is reduced
14 We recommend SKF brand or similar high quality bearings.
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List Price: $600.00 Our Price: $570.00 You Save: $30.00
Solar Thermal: The quality guarantee is 50 years.
BENERFIT MEDIA OFFER FOR ALL-WEATHER Solar Water Heater is a high performance product development and designed by our corporation, which is based on many years experience in solar energy application. Thai product has excellent heat collecting efficiency, prefect control function. It is specially designed for the weather in Southeast Asian. It also possesses excellent features such as compact and fine sculpts, hurricane resistance, hailstone resistance and long lifetime etc.
Heat collecting area: 2.0 mm.
Daily output of hot water : > 200 kg./Day
Water container volume : > 200 kg.
Assistant electrical heating : 3 kW
Wind resistance : 8 grade
Hailstone resistance < 30 mm.
The pressure loaded on the water container is : 0.4 M Pa ( +/- %5)
Heat preservation effect : Degression in 24 hours < 4 ๐C at discretion
Remarkable Features & Excellent Functions
1. The heat collector plate adopts a flat compound core plate of copper and aluminum, which has excellent anticorrosive performance. The surface is coated with advanced black material innovated from patent. The efficiency of heat collector is over 10 % higher than vacuum tube.
2. The cover of heat collector is made of high quality plane strengthened and toughened glass, which can resist the impact of hailstone.
3. The internal container of water tank is made of high quality stainless steel plate. It is precisely made by the application of extruding model and auto-welding technology, which has stable and creditable quality. The joint fitting of water pipe is made of stainless steel and perfectly linked with water tank. The water tank is restless overall, non-pollution and is able to bear high pressure.
4. The shell of water tank is made of made of color steel plate or mirror surface stainless steel plate. The external cover is made from color armor plate by means of forging. The water tank is smooth and bright in all, and it also can resist rust, acid rain and dust cling.
5. The heat preservation of water tank adopts polyurethane high pressure overall froth, which has excellent heat preservation effect.
6. The bracket and the connecting components are made of shaped carbon steel with the plastic spray processing on the surface, good looking, light colorful and no corrosion. The structure of bracket is designed specially, stable support, reliable connection and easy installment
7. All connecting bolts are made of stainless steel and manufactured with national standard. It also can be installed or taken apart at discretion.
8. The cold and hot water pipes are made of high grade of compound aluminum pipe or and PPR pipe. The quality guarantee is 50 years.
In normal conditions (15+ mph winds) this unit will begin to charge a 12 volt battery. It's maximum output in ideal conditions is 25 volts and 2 amps. You may or may not see the same results in real world conditions. The unit can easily be carried in a back pack when broken down.
I get emails almost every day from folks that want a mini wind turbine to power an LED when it's turning. They just want to see a light burning when they look out the window at night or while sitting on the porch in the evenings. This unit will do that also. If it's turning it will light the LED (not included) and it gets brighter as wind speed increases. More wind will light a string of LED's.
I reccomend LED's but don't try the ultra low voltage versions as this turbine will burn them up very quickly.
This unit is perfect for your childs school project or your own alternative energy project. Key word: experimentation.
See how wind power really works. Discover wind powers strengths and weakness' before you put your hard earned money into a
more expensive wind turbine. Boy and Girl scouts also have a blast experimenting with this turbine.
Some folks with ideal wind conditions have successfully used these micro turbines to supplement their solar panels when
providing power to remote barns, shops, cabins, fence chargers, gate openers, sailboats etc.
Connecting this turbine couldn't be simpler. After mounting the turbine onto a pole or pipe that allows it to operate in clean air, connect the positive and negative wires from the turbine to the positive and negative terminals of your battery using 14 or 16 gauge wire.
The output of this unit was verified during open voltage tests and direct short amperage tests under controlled conditions. Both the output and function of each turbine is verified before boxing.
Here's a detailed description of the item:
The unit is very small, about 20" long from the tip of the prop to the end of the tailfin.
It comes with a blocking diode installed so as not to discharge your battery when the wind isn't turning the turbine.
This turbine utilizes our new modular motor housing / frame for a weatherproof , lightweight, strong assembly. This system is made on CNC machines utilizing modern polymers. The motor arbor, hub and tail fin mount are also CNC manufactured using the same polymer.
The downtube (the part that slips into your mounting pole, etc.) is .730" O.D. and can sit in any pipe that is slightly larger in diameter..
The tail fin (which keeps it pointed into the wind) is made of white plastic.
5 blades (12" each) come with this turbine. They are made from pvc plastic.
The unit comes 95% assembled and anyone can bolt on the tail fin and install the prop in less than 5 minutes.
The way of the turning of the blades is of horizontal and the design of the blade is of the scheme of the wing of the air-plane, so in operation the VAWT will not make any noise. Capacity of wind resistance:
Due to the advantage of the design of the VAWT, the press force the turbine suffered is minimized and as the result such VAWT can stand on the extra strong typhoon of 50 m/s.
It needs much smaller working space than other kinds of wind-power turbines. Thus not only saves the space, but also aises the working efficiency.
Power curve: It needs lower wind speed for its starting and the increasing of the power is slow and stable. So its production capacity is 10-30% higher than other kinds of turbines.
Scope of the wind power needed:
Due to the adoption of the new control system, this VAWT is suitable to be used in the wind speed scope from 2.0 25 m/s.. It means we can get full use of the wind source and producing more power economically.
H series wind power generating set utilize a new aerofoil vertical axis wind wheel and magnetic suspension structure(1KWto 10KW), the wind energy coefficient is very high, the start-up wind speed is very low, the anti-wind capability is high, the weight of generator is light, operation is stable, have no noise, with careful anti-corrosion treatment and good sealing, maintenance free and long service life.